Which of the following would better predict a person's racial biases? When we learn something new, a neurochemical "memory trace" is created. A context effect is an aspect of cognitive psychology that describes the influence of environmental factors on one's perception of a stimulus. A. Isla fails to arrive at a conclusion when she is offered multiple choices. Therefore, you decide to use _____ to elicit the desired behaviors in your subordinates. When people are bribed to do what they already like doing, they may see their actions as being externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing. The tendency to seek information and media that agree with one's views and to avoid dissonant information is called _____. judgments in everyday life are evaluative in nature. Schnall and Laird's (2003) research revealed that individuals induced to repeatedly practice happy expressions tended to recall many happy memories and found their happy mood lingering. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The tension that arises when a person's two thoughts or beliefs are inconsistent is called: It highlights the arousal of tension when two different thoughts coexist. Increasing the amount of information that can ben held in short-term memory by grouping related items together into a single unit. It is a directed or undirected graph consisting of vertices, which represent concepts, and edges. is characterized by being able to retrieve quite a lot of information about the target word without being able to retrieve the word itself. focusing on. is a type of memory rehearsal that is useful in maintaining information in short term memory or working memory. 0 e The contributors to this book review our current knowledge of context effects in survey research, psychological testing, and social judgement. In the context of social movements, identify a brainwashing technique used for American prisoners of war (POWs) during the 1950s Korean War. Her comments likely _____ your intrinsic motivation to maintain a clean and hygienic environment as an adult without being nagged. is a memory technique that involves thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered, as opposed to simply repeating the word to yourself over and over. The misinformation effect happens when our recall of episodic memories becomes less accurate because of post-event information. According to dissonance theory, after you decide who you wish to spend your life with, you will _____ the individual whose proposal you accepted. Which theory assumes that when our attitudes are weak, we will simply observe our behavior and its circumstances and then infer our attitudes? Although your mother had to nag you to clean your room as a child, she always praised your effort when you finished cleaning your room. The impact of context effects is considered to be part of top-down design. This is called: The _____ occurs when someone offers an unnecessary reward beforehand in an obvious effort to control behavior. A researcher who measures attitudes by assessing whether White people take longer to associate positive words with Black faces than with White faces is most likely using: According to the principle of _____, the effects of an attitude become more apparent when we look at a person's average behavior. is a part of the long-term memory that is responsible for knowing how to do things, also known as motor skills. Nadia has to decide if she wants to stay back and continue with her current job or move abroad with her husband where she will have limited job opportunities. In the context of psychology, this scenario exemplifies: Festinger and Carlsmith found that participants paid just $1 to lie to another student about how much they enjoyed a task displayed greater attitude change than those paid $20 to tell the same lie. You are an obese teenager who enjoys jogging. However, it is not an effective way of having information processed and transferred into long term memory. According to dissonance theory, we would expect Linda to reduce her dissonance by _____ the chosen vehicle and _____ the unchosen vehicles. Self-perception theory assumes that _____. The memory trace as well as the affect adhering to the idea are here and can not be exterminated. A pioneer in Pavlovian learning. Omar receives a job offer from an overseas company. Her elder son, Aaron, gets $1 an hour, whereas her younger son, John, gets $5 an hour for the same task. The attitudes that best predict behavior are: Diener and Wallbom (1976) found that when research participants were instructed to stop working on a problem after a bell sounded, 71% continued working when left alone. This is known as: Rhea has two sons. No one wants to look foolishly inconsistent according to _____ theory. differences in research participants’ responses that result from the order (e.g Any survey that contains multiple questions is susceptible to context effects. Which of the following statements is true of dissonance theory? In this scenario, Aaron's attitude toward the task exemplifies: _____ assumes that when our attitudes are weak or ambiguous, we infer them by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs. Important discovery in the research of clinical neuropsychology. Since then, it has taken her longer to read sad stories in the newspaper and understand her teenage daughter's emotional outbursts. Which theory best explains the change in your attitude? Information is therefore less available for later retrieval as time passes and memory, as well as memory strength, wears away. You know that dissonance theory predicts that attitudes will follow behaviors for which we feel some responsibility. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Context effects are aspects of psychology that deal with perception, or how the human mind views an object or event. Which of the following illustrates the facial feedback effect? Over time, Rob experiences an inner need to make his beliefs consistent with his acts. hearing oneself talk informs one of one's attitudes. Percent of acquisition tasks correct for free recall, cued recall, and recognition retention tests for the blocked intentional and incidental, and random intentional and incidental groups. In the context of social thinking, which of the following illustrates self-perception theory? Dissonance theory explains attitude _____, whereas self-perception theory explains attitude _____. This keeps the information in short-term memory longer. the action or process of recognizing or being recognized, in particular. Boundary finding as model matching. However, she later realizes that it is the only available brand in her locality. Initially, Lauren felt motivated and exceeded the count. People use explicit memory throughout the day, such as remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago. People may want to know whether a particular grade is good or bad This behavior is best explained by: Lucy volunteers to teach the children of a local orphanage baseball on weekends. [1] Bringing to memory old knowledge has the effect of impairing both the speed of learning and memory performance. When no such weapons were found after the war, 58% of Americans supported the war. The manager of the orphanage offers to pay Lucy if she coaches the children for four days a week. Zoe, a 10-year-old, loves gardening but loses interest when her parents offer her money for watering plants daily. Logan chooses zoology over botany as his major in college. This study aims to examine the effects of Quizlet, one of the online tools, on vocabulary learning motivation in the English as a foreign language (EFL) learning context. A formal definition of context effects is provided. Identify a true statement about cognitive dissonance theory. Sarah strongly believes that it is wrong to steal. Your parents are concerned about your health and give you money whenever you jog. Which of the following is exemplified in this experiment? handwriting as distinct from print; written characters. This term is a memory-related term and refers to the tendency to recall information that is presented first and last (like in a list) better than information presented in the middle. Psychologists refer to context effects as the general effect of priming. A progressive disease that destroys memory and other important mental functions, A group of thinking and social symptoms that interferes with daily functioning, American neuropsychologist who has extensively investigated the neural basis of memory, including several investigations of the famous amnesia patient, German psychologist who originated the scientific study of forgetting; plotted the first forgetting curve, which describes the basic pattern of forgetting learned information over time, American neurologist, born in Austria, who won a Nobel Prize in 2000 for his work on the neural basis of learning and memory in the sea snail Aplysia. The authors argue that this is the precisely the time when, having retrieved a memory trace, the brain can edit it. The encoding specificity principle is the general principle that matching the encoding contexts of information at recall assists in the retrieval of episodic memories.It provides a framework for understanding how the conditions present while encoding information relate to memory and recall of that information.. Quizlet psychology chapter 14 ch 15 16 flashcards quizlet(2) ap outline 20 section 2 guided reading the new frontier. The encoding specificity principle provides a framework for understanding how contextual information affects memory and recall. He is also expected to participate actively in group discussions and to write self-criticism. Source confusion is an attribute seen in different people's accounts of the same event after hearing people speak about the situation. One particularly common example of … A store owner is concerned about shoplifting. Context Effect The Context Effect is a part of Cognitive Psychology that states that the context (environmental factors) that surrounds an event effects how an event is perceived and remembered. Some, but not all, of the participants were required to make a pained expression whenever the shock was implemented. During a group discussion on smoking, Ethan says that one should avoid smoking as it is injurious to health and it symbolizes weakness. Tim replies that it might be his favorite genre because he listens to it regularly and does not dislike it. is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. They work in multinational companies. Research indicates that harming an innocent victim, especially voluntarily, leads one to: In the context of evil and moral acts, research indicates that if you wish to love someone more, you should: The daily flag salute by schoolchildren in the United States is an attempt to use _____ to build _____. Interference occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in comprehending the new material. The attitudes-follow-behavior effect is strongest when: At the beginning of the 2003 Iraq war, only 38% of Americans said the war was justified even if Iraq did not have weapons of mass destruction. Your parents purchase new running shoes for you after every major milestone (e.g., when you ran your first marathon). A context effect is an aspect of cognitive psychology that describes the influence of environmental factors on one's perception of a stimulus. The law of effect is a psychology principle advanced by Edward Thorndike in 1898 on the matter of behavioral conditioning (not then formulated as such) which states that "responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation." Gradually, the demands escalate to a point where he is required to give his statements on important matters. As a result, they are required to relocate abroad. (1974), Tesser et al. The principle, proposed by researchers Thomson and Tulving, states that memory is most effective when information available at encoding is also present at retrieval. (1972), and Tetlock (1983) stated that: Following the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision to desegregate schools, the percentage of White Americans favoring integrated schools jumped and now includes nearly everyone. Imagination inflation refers to the finding that imagining an event which never happened can increase confidence that it actually occurred. Your situation is an example of how: Cognitive dissonance theory focuses on _____. lead them to enjoy the activity less than earlier. Known for misinformation effect and eye witness memory and the creation and nature of false memory. The relationship between your studying behavior and your attitude toward studying can be best described by which social psychological term? She concludes that she must be happy because her best friend paid her a visit the previous evening after a long time. is a network which represents semantic relations between concepts. Discovered the engram in the cerebellum, used classical conditioning. Which of the following would better predict a person's support for a Republican presidential candidate? Many of us can identify times in our lives where, due to an accident, traumatic event or substance use, we are unable to remember specific events or actions. Identify the true statement about role-playing studies. You may know how many syllables the word has, or its initial sound or letter. Initially, Lucy is excited about the offer and accepts it. We cannot sense how someone else is feeling by mirroring his or her facial expressions. In this scenario, which of the following is a likely reason for his dissonance? To reduce this discomfort, they may change their attitudes. Which of the following best explains these side effects? Impression management is to _____ as cognitive dissonance is to _____. Which of the following theories of psychology best explains this example. The same gray square…. Retrograde amnesia (RA) is a loss of memory-access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease. In the context of psychology, which of the following theories will most accurately explain Tim's behavior? Which of the following theories assumes that to reduce discomfort we justify our actions to ourselves? They decide to encourage her reading habit by paying her $5 for each book she reads. agrees to give the speech without special incentives. Now that you are living on your own, you feel no motivation to clean your home as your parents are not around to nag you. (1980) and Sansone (1986), rewards that seek to control people and lead them to believe it was the reward that caused their effort diminish the intrinsic appeal of an enjoyable task. installing eye-level mirrors in his store. Jeremy loses interest in doing arithmetic after his teacher promises him $1 for each problem he solves correctly. However, after a few weeks, she lost interest and began to consider writing a chore. It can influence what we see and hear there are a few types of motivational-emotional influence on perception: (2007) investigate the idea that killing begets killing? After owning the vehicle for several months, she experiences dissonance and wonders if her choice was right. Context effect is not written in stone. Which theory best accounts for her shift in attitude? Framing Effect Example: Gas Mileage. Sometimes I experience this when I go to the store and don't write a list. This is an example of how: In the context of thought-control programs and POWs (prisoners of war), prisoners were _____ to comply with a significant request if they complied with a trivial request first. Which of the following theories explains this insufficient justification effect? In psychiatry, mood congruence is the congruence between feeling, or the emotion that a person is experiencing, and affect display, or the manner in which that emotion is "presenting", or being expressed. Which statement is NOT true about attitudes? Contrary to her expectation, Rhea notices that although Aaron is paid less for the task and has probably experienced more dissonance than John, he does a better job than John. the action of subduing someone or something by force. According to the overjustification effect, how will Allison react to this new reward system? This is best explained by: Vaughan and Lanzetta's (1981) study required participants to observe someone receiving supposed electric shocks. The impact of context effects is considered to be part of top-down design. The concept is supported by the theoretical approach to perception known as constructive perception. Once we make a decision or choice, and feel some cognitive dissonance, we _____. According to Banaji and Greenwald (2013), the most widely used measure of implicit attitudes is the implicit association test (IAT), which _____. According to self-perception theory, your parents' behavior is most likely to _____ your intrinsic motivation for jogging. Four classical examples of context effects of the perception of area, length, orientation, and lightness are presented in a common, structured format. attitudes follow behaviors for which we feel some responsibility. Which of the following best accounts for this finding? You can also have a look on unconscious transfer. Which theory states that people often experience a self-image threat after engaging in an undesirable behavior, and they can compensate by affirming another aspect of the self? However, he experiences dissonance when his semester starts. This shows that: It pertains mostly to discrepancies between behavior and attitudes. Important contributions to the study of learning and memory. A context effect is an aspect of cognitive psychology that describes the influence of environmental factors on ones perception of a stimulus. When her parents found out about this, they promised to give her some incentive if she wrote more than three stories per week. In the context of insufficient justification, dissonance theory predicts that her true attitude will undergo the most change if she: give additional reasons for that decision or choice. One of the simplest instance of relational (or context) effects in perception is that of brightness contrast. Though Lisa is opposed to capital punishment, she is asked to give a speech in favor of it to conclude a class debate. You decide to use your knowledge of social psychology to improve the working conditions of your subordinates. Later, Ethan avoids smoking in front of his classmates lest his views on smoking contradict his words. When this happens, it can prevent the brain from creating and storing memories. Research revealed that the POWs (prisoners of war) of the Korean War were brainwashed through the tactic of: Which of the following theories assumes that people, especially those who self-monitor their behavior hoping to create good impressions, will adapt their attitude reports to appear consistent with their actions? uses reaction times to measure how quickly people associate concepts. Memory consolidation is a category of processes that stabilize a memory trace after its initial acquisition. Which statement is NOT true according to the research findings on expressions and attitudes? Zimbardo attributed the behavior of the subjects in his Stanford prison study to: In the context of the overjustification effect, if you want Harry to spend less time watching MTV and more time watching PBS, you should: An attitude predicts one's behavior when: Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) found that when people act in a manner that is contrary to their internal attitudes they feel uncomfortable. According to Rosenfeld et al. In other words, we deduce our attitudes in the same manner as would an outside observer. If you are studying because you want to do well in your chosen course and truly want to understand the material, you are more likely to want to study in the future than students who view studying as compulsory. Organizing items into related groups during recall from long-term memory. She promises to give incentives to her sons for weeding the garden every Sunday. This effect is relevant to the study of memory and cognition, particularly false memory. This faculty can fail for a number of reasons; trauma or substance use being the most common. B. Mahdi, a 15-year-old, is weak in math but is motivated to work hard when his teacher recognizes his effort. As a teenager, your parents always compelled you to clean your room. disparage the victim to justify one's cruel behavior. Putting yourself back in the context where you experienced something can prime your memory retrieval. Context Effects in Memory 355 85 80 75 70 65 LI : : 2 E 60 55 Y 50 05 00 35 30 25 20 15 10 L 5 he aecnii cued RWU Rerenrion 7e.t. Felix sweats profusely just before an interview and feels uncomfortable. Drawing on recent developments in cognitive psychology, they offer theoretical accounts of the conditions that lead to the emergence of various context Interference occurs in learning when there is an interaction between the new material and transfer effects of past learned behavior, memories or thoughts that have a negative influence in comprehending the new material. Rewarding people for doing what they already enjoy may lead them to attribute their action to the reward. Thus, the apparent brightness of a stimulus depends not only on its own luminance but also on that of the surrounding stimulation. I guess I should write them down, huh? the part of short-term memory that is concerned with immediate conscious perceptual and linguistic processing. Encoding refers to the brain's ability to store and recall events and information, either short or long-term. Grace assumes that she purchases a specific brand of olive oil regularly because she likes it. Although you may spend an evening surfing the Internet rather than studying, you have generally been a disciplined student throughout your academic career and have always held the attitude that studying is important. In a psychology experiment, the participants were required to frown during the first half of the day and smile during the remaining half. He concludes he is nervous. They were instructed to smile whenever they saw an unpleasant picture. With which theory are the results of this study consistent? Start studying Context Effects. Which of the following theories explains the insufficient justification effect by claiming that we explain our behavior by noting the conditions under which it occurs? Interference theory is theory regarding human memory. Moral action affects moral thinking, especially when: The finding that religious attitudes predict the total quantity of religious behaviors over time across many situations defines: In the context of dual processing, automatic thinking is _____. If so, this would undermine their self-perception that they do it because they like it. Attitudes include all of the following EXCEPT: According to Eagly and Chaiken (2005), beliefs and feelings related to a person or an event are known as: Explicit self-reports are the better predictor than implicit self-reports for: changing people's attitudes often hardly affects their behavior. Myra's neighbor, an 8-year-old, plays his saxophone loudly. Which area of the brain is active when we automatically evaluate social stimuli? If the number of people in favor of same-sex marriages increases after a law is passed allowing such marriages, this will be an example of how: Emily, an employee in a software company, dares to share confidential company information with a rival company as she was not caught doing a similar act earlier. Decay theory proposes that memory fades due to the mere passage of time. Dissonance conditions do indeed arouse tension, especially when they threaten: Based on studies conducted by implicit attitude researchers, which of the following statements is true of implicit biases? Studies of LTP are often carried out in slices of the hippocampus, an important organ for learning and memory. In the context of psychology, which of the following theories supports Ji-woo's conclusion? Sensory memory actually refers to memories of all senses while iconic memory relates to the memory of sight only. A clue, prompt, or hint that helps trigger recall of a given piece of information stored in long-term memory, The inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues. Which of the following theories best explains this scenario? In the context of the dual processing capacity of human beings, unlike automatic thinking, controlled thinking is: The disjuncture between attitudes and actions is what Daniel Batson and his colleagues call _____, appearing moral while avoiding the costs of being so. ill recently received a Botox injection to treat the wrinkles in her face. Which of the following psychological effects is illustrated in this scenario? Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent increase in synaptic strength following high-frequency stimulation of a chemical synapse. A context effect is an aspect of cognitive psychology that describes the influence of environmental factors on one's perception of a stimulus. Déjà vu, from French, literally "already seen", is the phenomenon of having the strong sensation that an event or experience currently being experienced has been experienced in the past, regardless of whether it has actually happened. Prospective memory is a form of memory that involves remembering to perform a planned action or intention at the appropriate time. Chapter 1 Introducing the World of Psychology Read and study chapter 1 4 InQuizitive due by 11:59 PM on Sunday, February 5Read and study chapter psychology and identify extant answers within the literature (Goal: Scientific Research InQuizitive is a formative, adaptive quizzing tool that you will complete as a Chapter 5. 5 Psychology 100- Study Guide 2 Psy 100 notes Quiz ch. In perception: Context effects. In this issue, we take a look at the current state of the gig economy, the future of work in the context of the rising gig work, strategies businesses can embrace to … Identify a true statement about dissonance theory. Which of the following illustrates the attitudes-follow-behavior principle in psychology? (league of legends) bring (a fact, event, or situation) back into one's mind, especially so as to recount it to others; remember. Tim, a 30-year-old businessman, is asked by his friend if classical music is his favorite genre. You know the meaning of the word. the action of suppressing something such as an activity or publication. Research on potent attitudes that influence shoplifting suggests that he can reduce theft by: Initially, when Ben was promoted to manager of his organization, he felt awkward giving orders to his co-workers. He is in a dilemma and is unable to choose the right course of action. Rubin's Pathology-Raphael Rubin 2011-02-01 "The highly acclaimed foundation textbook Rubin's Pathology: Clinicopathologic Foundations of Medicine, now in its sixth edition, provides medical students with a lucid discussion of basic disease processes and their effects on cells, organs, and people. The sample group of the study Context dependent memory refers to the phenomenon of how much easier it is to retrieve certain memories when the "context," or circumstances around the memory are same for both the original encoding and retrieval. In a simpler manner, "when events are represented in memory, contextual information is stored along with memory targets; the context can therefore cue memories containing that contextual information". According to the overjustification effect, promising children a reward for an activity that they already enjoy doing intrinsically will: pay him to play and gradually offer him less. In a psychological experiment, the participants were shown a collection of pictures depicting both pleasant and unpleasant aspects of their lives. 'S behaviors affect one 's views and to write self-criticism dorms but knew it was to... Multiple choices has two sons she lost interest and began to consider writing a chore trace after its acquisition... 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