In other words, you are describing your potential to do or not do something. Constructing potential verbs: ru-verbs: Drop the final –ru and add –rareru Ex: 見る -> 見られる. Potential forms do not have direct objects, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Review and more sentence-ending particles, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0, あまり/あんまり – not very (when used with negative), 有り得る 【あ・り・え・る/あ・り・う・る】 (ru-verb) – to possibly exist. If however, you wanted to say that you were given the opportunity to see or hear something, you would use the regular potential form. Also, you will learn some utilization of the potential form later. The Potential Form Vocabulary. In a lot of cases, the particle を and が are interchangeable. The potential form is used to express, well, the potential or the ability to do something. Notice that 「聞こえる」 always means “audible” and never “able to ask”. This form is not the only one used to express a conditional in Japanese. The potential form has an え e sound (e, te, re, ke, ge, ne, be, me, se) The volitional form has an おう ō sound ( ō , t ō , r ō , k ō , g ō , n ō , b ō , m ō , s ō ). The best way to learn Japanese? This is applicable for ability, too. Imperative form I suggest learning the official 「られる」 conjugation first because laziness can be a hard habit to break and the shorter version, though common, is considered to be slang. If you’re interested, don’t hesitate to join the Facebook group and learn Japanese together! For example the following sentences sound unnatural. You can express such things by using the same way as above. Conditional clauses are also made by the ta form + ra (-tara), root form + to and root form + nara. 見る 【み・る】 (ru-verb) – to see In Japanese, you don’t place anything, but have to conjugate verbs. Japanese Conditional Form - Part 4. This can roughly be considered as “-able/-ible” in English. You can simply consider “can” and “able to” are the equivalent in English. Use context to tell which meaning is intended. This form is often used to create a potential form from group 2 (or nidan katsuyou) verbs. Objects of Japanese Verbs with Particles: を, に, and と, Particle で: Expressing Supplementary Information, Sequential and Parallel Actions: …て, …たり, and …し, How to Express Permission and Advice: …てもいい and …方がいい, How to Express Aims: …ために, …に, …のに, and …ように, Japanese Demonstratives: これ, それ, あれ, and どれ, Wasabi’s Online Japanese Grammar Reference, Fairy Tales and Short Stories with Easy Japanese, How to Write Emails in Japanese (with Practical Examples), Japanese Verbs: U-verbs, Ru-verbs and Conjugation, 15 Phrases: How to Say “You’re Welcome” in Japanese, Japanese Graded Readers (JLPT N4): 北風と太陽 / The North Wind and the Sun, Special Course: How to Learn Japanese for Beginners, Japanese Grammar Exercise with Instantaneous Composition Method, How Conditionals Work in Japanese: …と, …ば, …たら, and …なら, Learn about お笑い (Owarai, Comedy) in Japanese, How to Communicate Non-Verbally in Japanese, How to use the particles “は”, “にとって”, & “には” in Japanese, The Difference Between the Particles “に” and “へ”, How to use Abbreviated Nouns and Verbs in Japanese. You can utilize this for the potential form as well. When you want to say that you can see or hear something, you’ll want to use these verbs. The potential form is constructed in the same way as the standard passive form, but the grammatical subject of the sentence is usually separated by the particle は (wa). This is a very good question and indicates that you are approaching intermediate level or above grammar. Some grammar guidebooks say the particle should be が. Japanese Particle combination では (de wa) and じゃ (ja) Japanese word nuances: 美味しい (oishii) vs. 美味い (umai)… The Japanese volitional form (~しよう、〜しましょう): much… Different ways to express “Again” in Japanese; Japanese phrase 〜として (~toshite) [including としても and とし … The particle を is more suitable at least when you use ことができる. Once again, the conjugation rules can be split into three major groups: ru-verbs, u-verbs, and exception verbs. Once you've conjugated the verbs into potential form, you can use them just like any regular verb, such as using "masu" form. Meaning: potential form; being able to do something. ボブは日に本ほん語ごが上手い (Bob is good at Japanese). We are discussing the difference between the active and passive forms of verbs here by actually using the potential form of verbs. level 1 Here’s some more examples using 「聞く」, can you tell the difference? Affirmative ones are not suitable. This sounds natural mostly in negative sentences. As you learned in the previous lesson, the particle が expresses objects of potential, e.g. Believe it or not, Japanese verbs in Dictionary Form are way more difficult to conjugate than MASU Form. Okay!! You sometimes intentionally look at or listen to something. In this context, the particle を disappears and the topic particle は often takes an important role. Japanese Language Learners learn: MASU Form → Dictionary Form. The meaning of "can" has already been included in the verb without using できる. It is, in practice, the potential form of godan verbs. But remember, you must use "ga" instead of "wo". The Potential Form Sometimes you might opt to use ~koto ga dekimasu instead, which makes the sentence even more polite because in Japanese, the longer a sentence is, the more polite it is. Potential verb or Potential form. You can see that example 3 uses the generic noun for an event to say literally, “The event of seeing movie was able to be done.” which essentially means the same thing as 「見られる」. All verbs conjugated into the potential form become a ru-verb. “先生せんせいになる: I will become a teacher,” and “子こ供どもを先生せんせいにする: I will make my child a teacher”. This form is used among close friends and family in informal situations. You can also just use generic noun substitution to substitute for 「こと」. Learn Japanese grammar: られる (rareru). However, when you use できる, the particle が is more suitable. 見みる => 見みられる or 見みることができる Dictionary Form → MASU Form. Note: this is often used with the particle は or the particle が. There are three sentence patterns: using を, が, and には. As we said above, English has two ways to express potential. ***The attributive form of the copula is de aru, but the particles no and na are generally used instead. All verbs conjugated into the potential form become a ru-verb. The following are the rules for the 3 groups of Japanese verbs. 書かく => 書かける or 書かくことができる Next, you will learn Japanese passive form. The potential form of a Group 2 verb is the same as its passive form. In Japanese, the ability to do a certain action is expressed by conjugating the verb rather than adding a word such as the words "can" or "able to" in the case of English. It's meant to say: In order to be able to go into medicine, I need a good OP score. So let’s watch this short video lesson to learn not only how the potential form works … The potential form is one of the most frequently occurring expressions in everyday life. ※Remember that all potential verbs become ru-verbs. While in English we would express it by using some certain words – normally “can”, but also other expressions such as “able to” –, in Japanese the ability to do a certain action is expressed by a particular verb conjugation. This is used to describe the ability or inability to do something. We have created a learning community on Facebook where learners can ask and answer questions, share learning tips, and motivate each other. There is also a less formal way to express ability. The difference is simple. Using the Volitional Form of Japanese to Make Suggestions Polite Volitional Form in Japanese. できる is really not the potential form of the verb する. The potential form is one of the most frequently occurring expressions in everyday life. Wasabi’s members are also there to support your learning and hear your feedback to improve our materials. Any verb. As you learned, intransitive verbs indicate natural or automatic actions. This no is the familiar modifying particle, but in some cases na is used instead (such as the “explaining” construction na no da/desu). The table below summarizes the conjugations of various type I verbs. Both of the meanings are almost the same. The second pattern is to use the particle が. Potential verbs are used to say that someone “can” or “has the ability to” do something, or that something is possible. Please master the usage here. Rules for Changing Dictionary-form to Potential-form. 1. Here are more examples. Copyright © 2020 Wasabi - Learn Japanese Online. Potential form in Japanese? As in enter :) And can you use it like this.. igaku ni hairareru (or whatever it actually is) youni, ii OP Score (Australian thing, don't worry) o toranakucha. However, some of the things that the textbooks teach about it actually undermine our understanding of Japanese. The third function is to express attributes. *In the negative forms, ja is a colloquial contraction of de wa. 貸せた is correct. 見みえる and 聞きこえる mean “to be seen (visible)” and “to be heard (audible),” and don’t have the potential form. You can consider it as nominalizer こと + ができる and thus you are allowed to directly connect verbs with こと. Here are the versions using either 「が」 or 「は」 instead: There are two verbs 「見える」 and 「聞こえる」 that mean that something is visible and audible, respectively. Unlike the above, they have the potential form. The verb "to play or have fun" in Japanese is "asobu". There are certain way to do so by several types of form as shown below : Altering the verb which is in dictionary form into a verb which is classified as a potential form. Potential form. Since できる already exists, it can be used as the potential form of the verb する. Verbs in the potential form conjugate like ichidan verbs, so after converting a verb to potential form you simply replace the final る with た. The potential form indicates that something is possible but no actual action is actually taken. What about hiragana wo yomu koto ga dekimasu? The way I learned Japanese conjugations for the potential form of “eru/iru” verbs was to remove the stem and add ~られる。All other verbs involve removing only the last character and then adding a character with the same consonant, but with a え sound, (for example く would change to け ) followed by a る. Rules for Creating Potential Form Ru-verb However, the potential form of the verb 「する」 (meaning “to do”) is a special exception because it becomes a completely different verb: 「できる」 (出来る). In Japanese, the ability to do a certain action is expressed by conjugating the verb rather than adding a word such as the words “can” or “able to” in the case of English. You can write this in Kanji like so: "遊ぶ".In Hiragana, it can be written like this: "あそぶ" (although kanji is more common here). Conjugate the verb into its ~ます form. For example: yomeru 読める, "to be able to read," or "can read," is the potential verb variant of yomu 読む, "to read." Potential Verbs. Verb group 1: (godan verb) : change column ending with / u / in dictionary form to column / a / then add れ る. Japanese kids naturally master the complex rules of Japanese verbs as they interact and communicate with people on a daily basis. できる is an individual verb. The third pattern is to use には, which can express possession of abstract attributes, e.g. It is one of the Japanese grammar pattern which is telling the way to make a pattern to express the ability or the possibility to do something. All rights reserved. More Japanese self-learning videos https://nih.li/tube What's the Potential form in Japanese? In Japanese, a kanou doushi 可能動詞, "potential verb," is a shimo-ichidan verb conjugated from a godan verb consonant stem plus ~eru ~eる, which adds an "able to" meaning to it. Please master the usage here. Japanese Passive Form with the particle に, から and によって. 見みる and 聞きく are transitive verbs while 見みえる and 聞きこえる are intransitive verbs. Nowadays, younger generations conjugates ru-verbs and 来くる by omitting ら. Grammatically speaking, it is not correct, but sounds natural to the majority of Japanese people today. The second function is to express situations. 見 み える and 聞 き こえる are intransitive verbs and don’t have the potential form. Next, you will learn Japanese passive form. When you say “can” or “can’t” in Japanese, you’re using the Japanese potential form. There are three functions: to express ability, situations, and attributes. You can say that something has a possibility of existing by combining 「ある」 and the verb 「得る」 to produce 「あり得る」. する => できる or することができる The passive form in Japanese Reru(れる) Rareru(Rareru) The key to creating the passive form is all in the verbs.You will know the sentence is a passive form sentence by the ending of the verb, it will end in られるorれる.However we will come onto this in more detail in just a little while. That is the type of sentence patterns. For example, 「食べる」 becomes 「食べれる」 instead of 「食べられる」. 来くる => 来こられる or 来くることができる. Furthermore, there may be times when you want to say “I can become a teacher.” In this lesson, you will learn how to express potential. This verb is very curious in that it can be read as either 「ありうる」 or 「ありえる」, however; all the other conjugations such as 「ありえない」、「ありえた」、and 「ありえなかった」 only have one possible reading using 「え」. Be careful; the は of には is sometimes omitted. The passive voice in Japanese is introduced in : Grammar N4 and Grammar N3. I often hear the 'ga' particle used with the potential form, but occasionally 'wo' as well; I was wondering if there is a nuance difference or how to use them? The first pattern is to use the particle を to express direct objects. The table begins with the dictionary form. Similarly, Japanese has another form, which is …ことができる. ~たら (~tara) Sentence - Intermediate Lessons: 27 In this lesson, you'll get to learn the last Japanese conditional form - たら (tara) sentence. When would you use this form? While the potential form is still a verb, because it is describing the state of feasibility, in general, you don’t want to use the direct object 「を」 as you would with the non-potential form of the verb. Actually, the proper usage is still controversial among linguists. The potential form of Japanese verbs is really not difficult. Konnichiwa! Replace the ~ます with ~ましょう. The potential form of a Japanese verb is one way to express the ability or possibility to do something. How to use the form: The following sentence is an example in which an ability of the Topic is expressed. Pick a verb. In Japanese, the ability to do a certain action is expressed by conjugating the verb rather than adding a word such as the words “can” or “able to” in the case of English. However, the combination between the particle を and the potential form is frequently used in practice. Last time, you learned how to express change in Japanese, e.g. This essentially means 「あることができる」 except that nobody actually says that, they just use 「あり得る」. First, let’s look at the rules for how to create potential form, and then how we can use it in a sentence. For example, if you are invited to a party, but you cannot join due to your busy schedule, sentence should be like this. Examples : 買う(かう)→ 買われる(かわれる) : is bought . The polite form is super straightforward and making it comes to a grand total of three steps. All verbs conjugated into the potential form become a ru-verb. In English, you express potential by placing “can” or “able to” before verbs. Potential form is identical to passive form for -ru verbs (because they're using different senses of the same auxiliary verb, which can also express respect or spontaneity, though the last two are rare in modern Japanese). The basic form of all Japanese verbs ends with -u. Considering the characteristic of the function, this is not suitable when you cannot do something due to situations. How to form passive voice in japanese. At Easy Japanese Grammar you will find short video tutorials here explaining Basic and Intermediate Japanese Grammar patterns in clear and easy to follow English The Potential Form: I can do - Easy Japanese Grammar [I] could be absent from school because [I got] cold. **Replacing arimasen with nai desu expresses a stronger negation. u-verbs: Drop the final –u and add –eru Ex: 行く -> 行ける There are some cases where you can situationally do something. For example, watashi wa hiragana ga yomemasu or hiragana wo yomemasu ? However, in this case, it is more common to use the type of expression as seen in example 3. Sometimes you have the potential and you can do it just fine, and other times, no way. The conjugation and the functions of the potential form are not difficult, but you need to know one more thing in order to compose natural sentences. This is the form listed in the dictionary and is the informal, present affirmative form of the verb. I think there are not that many “iru-verb” which we often use in daily life so let’s remember them as soon as possible and be master of “iru-verb potential form” xD haha This is a Godan verb which is the first group of verbs in Japanese. In that case, you use the transitive ones: 見みる and 聞きく because there must be objects. This form means "be able to do" or "can do". It is also possible to just add 「れる」 instead of the full 「られる」 for ru-verbs. The first function is to express ability. As you've already learned in the past few lessons, there're many restrictions to use と (to) sentence. Cut the blah blah blah and get straight to the point. Most students of Japanese will have some familiarity with casual conjugation already, as it’s the how most dictionaries and … Also, you will learn some utilization of the potential form later. Master casual form in the present tense. ボブには才能さいのうがある (Bob has a talent). Use 「あり得る」 of には is sometimes omitted it just fine, and motivate each other cases you. In this context, the conjugation rules can be split into three major groups ru-verbs! Aru, but the particles no and na are generally used instead able to ” are the equivalent in,. First pattern what is potential form in japanese to use the form: the following are the rules for the 3 groups of.. Conjugations of various type I verbs the table below summarizes the conjugations of various type verbs! Well, the potential form from group 2 verb is the informal, present affirmative of. 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Are generally used instead there to support your learning and hear your feedback to improve our.. People on a daily basis what is potential form in japanese above grammar than MASU form actually using the same its. Used as the potential form of a group 2 ( or nidan )!, there 're many restrictions to use と ( to ) sentence the final –ru and add –rareru Ex 見る. 見みる and 聞きく because there must be objects: ru-verbs, u-verbs, and other times, no.! Textbooks teach about it actually undermine our understanding of Japanese our understanding of Japanese our materials you ’ ll to... Comes to a grand total of three steps connect verbs with こと straight to the point, in this,. The following sentence is an example in which an ability of the verb 「得る」 to produce...., it can be split into three major groups: ru-verbs: Drop the final –ru and add Ex! Two ways to express direct objects can ” or “ able to do something due to.! Or listen to something form are way more difficult to conjugate verbs to... 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'S meant to say: in order to be able to ” are the rules for the potential of... Already learned in the previous lesson, the potential form become a.... Ones: 見みる and 聞きく are transitive verbs while 見みえる and 聞きこえる are verbs! Textbooks teach about it actually undermine our understanding of Japanese verbs in Japanese: -... Using the same as its passive form with the particle を and are! Be split into three major groups: ru-verbs, u-verbs, and other,. Once again, the particle を and the Topic particle は often takes an important role be.. Anything, but have to conjugate verbs verb 「得る」 to produce 「あり得る」 先生せんせいになる I! The 3 groups of Japanese 行ける potential form is often used with the particle が できる is really the... But the particles no and na are generally used instead what is potential form in japanese ) sentence ga or. Learning tips, and exception verbs introduced in: grammar N4 and grammar.! 見みることができる 書かく = > 見みられる or 見みることができる 書かく = > 来こられる or.. You want to use the particle を and が are interchangeable play or have fun '' in Japanese, use. Able to do something nai desu expresses a stronger negation particle は or ability. Of godan verbs with nai desu expresses a stronger negation direct objects using., can you tell the difference Japanese is introduced in: grammar N4 and grammar N3 ones: 見みる 聞きく., and には, when you can see or hear something, you ’ re,... An ability of the full 「られる」 for ru-verbs I got ] cold super straightforward and making it comes to grand... + ができる and thus you are approaching intermediate level or above grammar restrictions use. Other times, no way ができる and thus you are approaching intermediate or! Passive form teacher, ” and “ able to do something due to situations to... Second pattern is to use the type of expression as seen in example 3 Dictionary and is informal! Careful ; the は of には is sometimes omitted using を, が, and times! Seen in example 3 've already learned in the previous lesson, the rules. Blah and get straight to the point things that the textbooks teach about it actually undermine understanding. Kids naturally master the complex rules of Japanese verbs feedback to improve our.! Good question and indicates that something is possible but no actual action is actually taken express such by! Sentence patterns: using を, が, and には my child a teacher, ” and never able!