{"deviceType":"mobile"} Sporer, Siegfried; Penrod, Steven; Read, Don; and Cutler, Brian L. "Choosing, Confidence, and Accuracy: A Meta-Analysis of the Confidence-Accuracy Relation to Eyewitness Identification Studies." A considerable amount is now known about how to lower the rate of mistaken identifications through the use of better procedures for conducting Crime and Delinquency 32 (1986): 518–544. Another estimator variable that is frequently cited is weapon focus. For instance, white Americans have more difficulty identifying the faces of black Americans than they do of other white Americans, and black Americans have more difficulty identifying the faces of white Americans than they do of black Americans. .warranty-twister-container .warranty-twister-expander-heading .warranty-twister-expander-icon-container{transition:all .4s ease;padding-top:15px!important;padding-left:0!important}.warranty-twister-container .warranty-twister-expander-heading .warranty-twister-expander-icon{transition:all .4s ease}.warranty-twister-container .warranty-twister-expander-heading .warranty-twister-expander-icon.rotate{transform:rotateZ(-180deg);transition:all .4s ease}.warranty-twister-container .warranty-twister-expander-heading .warranty-twister-expander-heading-image-container{padding-top:0!important;padding-bottom:0!important}.warranty-twister-container .warranty-twister-expander-heading 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In cases where the eyewitness knew the suspect before the crime, issues of the reliability of memory are usually not contested. AmazonUIPageJS : P).when('atf').execute(function(){ This means that confidence is a poorer predictor of accuracy than height is a predictor of gender. ." Figure 7.1 Eyewitness What can happen to our memory from the time … (window.AmazonUIPageJS ? @charset "UTF-8";.turbo-checkout-auto-load-spinner{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;overflow:hidden}.turbo-checkout-auto-load-circle-container{position:absolute;top:50%;left:50%;width:50px;height:50px;overflow:hidden;border-radius:50%;background:#fff;transform:translate(-50%,-50%)}.turbo-checkout-auto-load-spinner-container{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;background-color:rgba(255,255,255,.75);overflow:hidden;z-index:1008}#turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet{position:fixed;background-color:#fff;bottom:0;min-height:36.5rem;height:36.5rem;left:0;right:0;-moz-webkit-transition:visibility 0s linear .4s,transform .4s linear,height .4s;-ms-webkit-transition:visibility 0s linear .4s,transform .4s linear,height .4s;-o-webkit-transition:visibility 0s linear .4s,transform .4s linear,height .4s;-khtml-webkit-transition:visibility 0s linear .4s,transform .4s linear,height .4s;-webkit-transition:visibility 0s linear .4s,transform .4s linear,height .4s;transition:visibility 0s linear .4s,transform .4s linear,height .4s;-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,36.5rem,0);transform:translate3d(0,36.5rem,0);visibility:hidden;z-index:1009}#turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet.turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet-visible{-webkit-transform:translate3d(0,0,0);transform:translate3d(0,0,0);transition-delay:0s;visibility:visible}#turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet.turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet-fullscreen{-moz-webkit-transition:transform .4s ease-in .4s;-ms-webkit-transition:transform .4s ease-in .4s;-o-webkit-transition:transform .4s ease-in .4s;-khtml-webkit-transition:transform .4s ease-in .4s;-webkit-transition:transform .4s ease-in .4s;transition:transform .4s ease-in .4s;-webkit-transform:scale(1,4);transform:scale(1,4)}#turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet.turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet-fullscreen>*{opacity:0!important;transition:opacity .4s linear}#turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet.turbo-checkout-no-animation{transition-property:none;transition-duration:0s;transition-delay:0s}#turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet-dimmer{position:fixed;top:0;left:0;height:100%;background-color:#000;background:radial-gradient(ellipse at 50% 40%,rgba(0,0,0,.5) 0,#000 100%);transition:visibility 0s linear .4s,opacity .4s linear;visibility:hidden;opacity:0;z-index:1008}#turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet-dimmer-close{position:fixed;bottom:36.5rem;right:1.5rem;line-height:1.35;-moz-webkit-transition:bottom .4s;-ms-webkit-transition:bottom .4s;-o-webkit-transition:bottom .4s;-khtml-webkit-transition:bottom .4s;-webkit-transition:bottom .4s;transition:bottom .4s}#turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet-dimmer-close:after{content:'×';font-size:40pt;font-family:Helvetica,Roboto,sans-serif;color:#fff;text-shadow:0 1px 2px #000;line-height:1.35}#turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet-dimmer-close.back-content:after{content:attr(data-after);font-size:14pt;font-family:Helvetica,Roboto,sans-serif;color:#fff;text-shadow:0 1px 2px #000;line-height:3.15}#turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet-dimmer.turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet-dimmer-visible{opacity:.75;transition-delay:0s;visibility:visible}#turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet-dimmer.turbo-checkout-no-animation{transition-property:none;transition-duration:0s;transition-delay:0s}#turbo-checkout-bottom-sheet-frame{width:1px;min-width:100%;border:0;height:100%}.turbo-checkout-fix-body{position:fixed}#turbo-loading-container{min-height:inherit;min-width:inherit;position:relative;opacity:0;-moz-webkit-transition:opacity .5s linear .25s;-ms-webkit-transition:opacity .5s linear .25s;-o-webkit-transition:opacity .5s linear .25s;-khtml-webkit-transition:opacity .5s linear .25s;-webkit-transition:opacity .5s linear .25s;transition:opacity .5s linear .25s}#turbo-loading-content{position:absolute;left:0;right:0;top:35%}#turbo-loading-spinner{display:block;margin:0 auto}#turbo-loading-text{display:block;text-align:center}.turbo-checkout-blank{opacity:0}.turbo-checkout-shown{opacity:1!important} (window.AmazonUIPageJS ? } .size-chart-in-error{padding:15px} Popular AMA APA (6th edition) APA (7th edition) Chicago (17th edition, author-date) Harvard IEEE ISO 690 MHRA (3rd edition) MLA (8th edition) OSCOLA Turabian (9th edition) Vancouver. "The authors have provided an exhaustive overview of the issues involved in eyewitness identification [including] previous and more recent research in the field. This feedback problem is another factor leading eyewitness researchers to strongly advocate double-blind testing with lineups. * Includes: jquery.ui.core.css, jquery.ui.accordion.css, jquery.ui.autocomplete.css, jquery.ui.button.css, jquery.ui.datepicker.css, jquery.ui.dialog.css, jquery.ui.menu.css, jquery.ui.progressbar.css, jquery.ui.resizable.css, jquery.ui.selectable.css, jquery.ui.slider.css, jquery.ui.spinner.css, jquery.ui.tabs.css, jquery.ui.tooltip.css Unfortunately, a series of recent DNA exoneration cases shows evidence of the flaws in eyewitness identification, and how it may lead to the conviction of innocent people (MacLin, et al., 2001). The Psychology of Eyewitness Identification (Essays in Cognitive Psychology) 1st Edition by James Michael Lampinen (Author), Jeffrey S. Neuschatz (Author), Andrew D. 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